psbasemap - To plotPostScriptbasemaps

psbasemap-Btickinfo-Jparameters-Rwest/east/south/north[r] [-Eazimuth/elevation] [-Gfill] [-K] [-L[f][x]lon0/lat0/slat/length[m|n] ] [-O] [-P] [-U[/dx/dy/][label] ] [-V] [-Xx-shift] [-Yy-shift] [-Xy-level] [-Zzlevel] [-ccopies]

psbasemapcreates PostScript code that will produce a basemap. Several map projections are available, and the user may specify separate tickmark intervals for boundary annotation, ticking, and [optionally] gridlines. A simple map scale may also be plotted. No space between the option flag and the associated arguments. Use upper case for the option flags and lower case for modifiers.-BSets map boundary tickmark intervals.tickinfois a textstring made up of one or more concatenated substrings of the form [which]tick[m|c]. The optionalwhichcan be eitherafor annotation interval [Default],ffor frame tick interval, orgfor gridline interval. If frame interval is not set, it is assumed to be the same as annotation interval.tickis the desired tick interval. The optionalm|cindicates minutes (m) or seconds (c). To specify separate x and y ticks, separate the substrings that apply to the x and y axes with a slash [/] (If a 3-D basemap is selected with-E,-Jz, a third substring pertaining to the vertical axis may be appended.) For linear/log/power projections (-Jx): Labels for each axis can be added by surrounding them with colons. If the first character in the label is a period, then the label is used as plot title. If the label consists of more than one word, enclose the entire label in double quotes (e.g., :"my label":). By default, all 4 boundaries are plotted (referred to asW,E,S,N). To change the default, append the code for those you want (e.g.,WSfor standard lower-left x- and y-axis system). Upper case (e.g.,W) means draw axis/tickmarks AND annotate it, whereas lower case (e.g.,w) will only draw axis/tickmarks. (If a 3-D basemap is selected with-Eand-Jz, appendZorzto control the appearance of the vertical axis. Append '+' to draw the outline of the cube defined by-R) For non-geographical projections: Give negative scale (in-Jx) or axis length (in-JX) to change the direction of increasing coordinates (i.e., to make the y-axis positive down). For log10 axes: Annotations can be specified in one of three ways: (1)tickcan be 1, 2, or 3. Annotations will then occur at 1, 1-2-5, or 1-2-3-4-...-9, respectively. This option can also be used for the frame and grid intervals. (2) Anlis appended to thetickinfostring. Then, log10 of the tick value is plotted at every integer log10 value. (3) Apis appended to thetickinfostring. Then, annotations appear as 10 raised to log10 of the tick value. For power axes: Annotations can be specified in one of two ways: (1)ticksets the regular annotation interval. (2) Apis appended to thetickinfostring. Then, the annotation interval is expected to be in transformed units, but the annotation value will be plotted as untransformed units. E.g., iftick= 1 andpower= 0.5 (i.e., sqrt), then equidistant annotations labeled 1-4-9... will appear.-JSelects the map projection. The following character determines the projection. If the character is upper case then the argument(s) supplied as scale(s) is interpreted to be the map width (or axis lengths) in inch, else the scale argument(s) is the map scale (see its definition for each projection). Choose one of the following projections (TheEorCafter projection names stands for Equal-Area and Conformal, respectively):CYLINDRICALPROJECTIONS:-Jclon0/lat0/scaleor-JClon0/lat0/width(Cassini) Give projection center and scale (1:xxxx or inch/degree).-Jjlon0/scaleor-JJlon0/width(Miller Cylindrical Projection) Give the central meridian and scale (1:xxxx or inch/degree).-Jmparameters(Mercator[C]). Specify one of:-Jmscaleor-JMwidthGive scale along equator (1:xxxx or inch/degree).-Jmlon0/lat0/scaleor-JMlon0/lat0/widthGive central meridian, standard latitude and scale along parallel (1:xxxx or inch/degree).-Joparameters(Oblique Mercator[C]). Specify one of:-Joalon0/lat0/azimuth/scaleor-JOalon0/lat0/azimuth/widthSet projection center, azimuth of oblique equator, and scale.-Joblon0/lat0/lon1/lat1/scaleor-JOblon0/lat0/lon1/lat1/scaleSet projection center, another point on the oblique equator, and scale.-Joclon0/lat0/lonp/latp/scaleor-JOclon0/lat0/lonp/latp/scaleSet projection center, pole of oblique projection, and scale. Give scale along oblique equator (1:xxxx or inch/degree).-Jqlon0/scaleor-JQlon0/width(Equidistant Cylindrical Projection (Plate Carree)) Give the central meridian and scale (1:xxxx or inch/degree).-Jtlon0/scaleor-JTlon0/width(TM - Transverse Mercator[C]) Give the central meridian and scale (1:xxxx or inch/degree).-Juzone/scaleor-JUzone/width(UTM - Universal Transverse Mercator[C]) Give the zone number and scale (1:xxxx or inch/degree). Use negative zone numbers for the southern hemisphere.-Jylon0/lats/scaleor-JYlon0/lats/width(Basic Cylindrical Projections[E]) Give the central meridian, standard parallel, and scale (1:xxxx or inch/degree). The standard parallel is typically one of these (but can be any value): 45 - The Peters projection 37.4 - The Trystan Edwards projection 30 - The Behrman projection 0 - The Lambert projectionAZIMUTHALPROJECTIONS:-Jalon0/lat0/scaleor-JAlon0/lat0/width(Lambert[E]).lon0/lat0specifies the projection center. Give scale as 1:xxxx orradius/lat, whereradiusis distance in inch from origin to the oblique latitudelat.-Jelon0/lat0/scaleor-JElon0/lat0/width(Equidistant).lon0/lat0specifies the projection center. Give scale as 1:xxxx orradius/lat, whereradiusis distance in inch from origin to the oblique latitudelat.-Jflon0/lat0/horizon/scaleor-JFlon0/lat0/horizon//width(Gnomonic).lon0/lat0specifies the projection center.horizonspecifies the max distance from projection center (in degrees, < 90). Give scale as 1:xxxx orradius/lat, whereradiusis distance in inch from origin to the oblique latitudelat.-Jglon0/lat0/scaleor-JGlon0/lat0/width(Orthographic).lon0/lat0specifies the projection center. Give scale as 1:xxxx orradius/lat, whereradiusis distance in inch from origin to the oblique latitudelat.-Jslon0/lat0/scaleor-JSlon0/lat0/width(General Stereographic[C])lon0/lat0specifies the projection center. Give scale as 1:xxxx orradius/lat, whereradiusis distance in inch from origin to the oblique latitudelat.CONICPROJECTIONS:-Jblon0/lat0/lat1/lat2/scaleor-JBlon0/lat0/lat1/lat2/width(Albers[E]) Give projection center, two standard parallels, and scale (1:xxxx or inch/degree).-Jllon0/lat0/lat1/lat2/scaleor-JLlon0/lat0/lat1/lat2/width(Lambert[C]) Give origin, 2 standard parallels, and scale along these (1:xxxx or inch/degree).MISCELLANEOUSPROJECTIONS:-Jhlon0/scaleor-JHlon0/width(Hammer[E]) Give the central meridian and scale along equator (1:xxxx or inch/degree).-Jilon0/scaleor-JIlon0/width(Sinusoidal[E]) Give the central meridian and scale along equator (1:xxxx or inch/degree).-Jklon0/scaleor-JKlon0/width(Eckert VI[E]) Give the central meridian and scale along equator (1:xxxx or inch/degree).-Jnlon0/scaleor-JNlon0/width(Robinson) Give the central meridian and scale along equator (1:xxxx or inch/degree).-Jrlon0/scale-JRlon0/width(Winkel Tripel) Give the central meridian and scale along equator (1:xxxx or inch/degree).-Jwlon0/scaleor-JWlon0/width(Mollweide[E]) Give the central meridian and scale along equator (1:xxxx or inch/degree).NON-GEOGRAPHICALPROJECTIONS:-Jpscaleor-JPwidth(Linear projection for polar (theta,r) coordinates) Give scale in inch/r-unit.-Jxx-scale[/y-scale] or-JXwidth[/height]scale[orwidth] can be any of the following 3 types:-Jxscale- Regular linear scaling.-Jxscalel- Take log10 of values before scaling.-Jxscaleppower- Raise values topowerbefore scaling. Givex-scalein inch/x-unit andy-scalein inch/y-unit. (y-scale=x-scaleif not specified separately). Use negative scale(s) to reverse the direction of an axis (e.g., to have y be positive down). Appenddif x and y are geographical coordinates in degrees. Default axes lengths (see gmtdefaults) can be invoked using-JXh(for landscape);-JXv(for portrait) will swap the x- and y-axes lengths. TheGMTdefault unit for this installation is inch. However, you may change this by editing your .gmtdefaults file(s) (run gmtdefaults to create one if you don't have it). The ellipsoid used in the map projections is user-definable by editing the .gmtdefaults file in your home directory. 13 commonly used ellipsoids and a spheroid are currently supported, and users may also specify their own ellipsoid parameters (see man gmtdefaults for more details).GMTdefault is WGS-84.-Rwest,east,south, andnorthspecify the Region of interest. To specify boundaries in degrees and minutes [and seconds], use the dd:mm[:ss] format. Appendrif lower left and upper right map coordinates are given instead of wesn.

-ESets the viewpoint's azimuth and elevation (for perspective view) [180/90]-GPaint inside of basemap. [Default is no fill]. Specify the shade (0-255) or color (r/g/b, each in 0-255).-JzSets the vertical scaling (for 3-D maps). Same syntax as-Jx.-KMorePostScriptcode will be appended later [Default terminates the plot system].-LDraws a simple map scale centered onlon0/lat0. Use-Lxto specify position in inch instead. Scale is calculated at latitudeslat,lengthis in km [miles ifmis appended; nautical miles ifnis appended]. Use-Lfto get a "fancy" scale [Default is plain].-OSelects Overlay plot mode [Default initializes a new plot system].-PSelects Portrait plotting mode [GMTDefault is Landscape, see gmtdefaults to change this].-UDraw Unix System time stamp on plot. User may specify where the lower left corner of the stamp should fall on the page relative to lower left corner of plot in inch [Default is (-0.75i/- 0.75i)]. Optionally, append a label, orc(which will plot the command string.)-VSelects verbose mode, which will send progress reports to stderr [Default runs "silently"].-X-YShift origin of plot by (x-shift,y-shift) inch [Default is (a1i,a1i) for new plots, (0,0) for overlays]. Prependafor absolute coordinates; the default (r) will reset plot origin.-ZFor 3-D projections: Sets the z-level of the basemap [0].-cSpecifies the number of plot copies. [Default is 1]

The following section illustrates the use of the options by giving some examples for the available map projections. Note how scales may be given in several different ways depending on the projection. Also note the use of upper case letters to specify map width in inch instead of map scale.

To make a linear x/y frame with all axes, but with only left and bottom axes annotated, using xscale = yscale = 1.0, ticking every 1 unit and annotating every 2, and using xlabel = "Distance" and ylabel = "No of samples", try psbasemap-R0/9/0/5-Jx1-Bf1a2:Distance:/:"No of samples":WeSn> linear.ps

To make a log-log frame with only the left and bottom axes, where the x-axis is 9 inch and annotated every 1-2-5 and the y-axis is 6 inch and anotated every power of 10 but has tickmarks every 0.1, try psbasemap-R1/10000/1e20/1e25-JX9il/6il-B2:Wavelength:/a1pf3:Power:WS> loglog.ps

To design an axis system to be used for a depth-sqrt(age) plot with depth positive down, ticked and annotated every 500m, and ages annotated at 1 my, 4 my, 9 my etc, try psbasemap-R0/100/0/5000-Jx1p0.5/-0.001-B1p:"Crustal age":/500:Depth: > power.ps

For a base map for use with polar coordinates, where the radius from 0 to 1000 should correspond to 3 inch, and with gridlines and ticks every 30 degrees and 100 units, try psbasemap-R0/360/0/1000-JP6i-B30p/100 > polar.ps

A 4-inch-wide basemap using the Cassini projection may be obtained by psbasemap-R20/50/20/35-JC35/28/4i-P-B5g5:.Cassini: > cassini.ps

A Mercator map with scale 0.025 inch/degree along equator, and showing the length of 5000 km along the equator (centered on 1/1 inch), may be plotted as psbasemap-R90/180/-50/50-Jm0.025i-B30g30:.Mercator:-Lx1i/1i/0/5000 > mercator.ps

A global Miller cylindrical map with scale 1:200,000,000, may be plotted as psbasemap-R0/360/-90/90-Jj1:200000000-B30g30:.Miller: > miller.ps

To create a page-size global oblique Mercator basemap for a pole at (90,30) with gridlines every 30 degrees, try psbasemap-R0/360/-70/70-Joc0/0/90/30/0.025id-B30g30:."Oblique Mercator": > oblmerc.ps

A regular Transverse Mercator basemap for some region may look like psbasemap-R69:30/71:45/-17/-15:15-Jt70/1:1000000-B15m:."Survey area":-P> transmerc.ps

This projection only needs the central meridian and scale. A 9 inch wide global basemap centered on the 130E meridian is made by psbasemap-R-50/310/-90/90-JQ130/9i-B30g30:."Equidistant Cylindrical": > cyl_eqdist.ps

To use this projection you must know the UTM zone number, which defines the central meridian. A UTM basemap for Indo-China can be plotted as psbasemap-R95/5/108/20r-Ju46/1:10000000-B3g3:.UTM: > utm.ps

First select which of the cylindrical equal-area projections you want by deciding on the standard parallel. Here we will use 45 degrees which gives the Peters projection. A 9 inch wide global basemap centered on the Pacific is made by psbasemap-R0/360/-90/90-JY180/45/9i-B30g30:.Peters: > peters.ps

A basemap for middle Europe may be created by psbasemap-R0/90/25/55-Jb45/20/32/45/0.1i-B10g10:."Albers Equal- area": > albers.ps

Another basemap for middle Europe may be created by psbasemap-R0/90/25/55-Jl45/20/32/45/0.1i-B10g10:."Lambert Conformal Conic": > lambertc.ps

A 6-inch-wide global view of the world from the vantage point -80/-30 will give the following basemap: psbasemap-R0/360-/-90/90-JA-80/-30/6i-B30g30/15g15:."Lambert Azimuthal": > lamberta.ps Follow the instructions for stereographic projection if you want to impose rectangular boundaries on the azimuthal equal-area map but substitute-Jafor-Js.

A 6-inch-wide global map in which distances from the center (here 125/10) to any point is true can be obtained by: psbasemap-R0/360-/-90/90-JE125/10/6i-B30g30/15g15:."Equidistant": > equi.ps

A view of the world from the vantage point -100/40 out to a horizon of 60 degrees from the center can be made using the Gnomonic projection: psbasemap-R0/360-/-90/90-JF-100/40/60/6i-B30g30/15g15:."Gnomonic": > gnomonic.ps

A global perspective (from infinite distance) view of the world from the vantage point 125/10 will give the following 6-inch-wide basemap: psbasemap-R0/360-/-90/90-JG125/10/6i-B30g30/15g15:."Orthographic": > ortho.ps

To make a Polar stereographic projection basemap with radius = 5 inch to -60 degree latitude, with plot title "Salinity measurements", using 5 degrees annotation/tick interval and 1 degree gridlines, try psbasemap-R-45/45/-90/-60-Js0/-90/5i/-60-B5g1:."Salinity measurements": > stereo1.ps To make a 5-inch-wide stereographic basemap for Australia from an arbitrary view point (not the poles), and use a rectangular boundary, we must give the pole for the new projection and use the-Roption to indicate the lower left and upper right corners (in lon/lat) that will define our rectangle. We choose a pole at 130/-30 and use 100/-45 and 160/-5 as our corners. The command becomes psbasemap-R100/-45/160/-5r-JS130/-30/5i-B30g30/15g15:."General Stereographic View": > stereo2.ps

The Hammer projection is mostly used for global maps and thus the spherical form is used. To get a world map centered on Greenwich at a scale of 1:200000000, try psbasemap-R0/360/-90/90-Jh180/1:200000000-B30g30/15g15:.Hammer: > hammer.ps

To make a sinusiodal world map centered on Greenwich, with a scale along the equator of 0.02 inch/degree, try psbasemap-R0/360/-90/90-Ji0/0.02i-B30g30/15g15:."Sinusoidal": > sinus1.ps To make an interrupted sinusiodal world map with breaks at 160W, 20W, and 60E, with a scale along the equator of 0.02 inch/degree, try the following sequence of commands: psbasemap-R-160/-20/-90/90-Ji-90/0.02i-B30g30/15g15Wesn-K> sinus_i.ps psbasemap-R-20/60/-90/90-Ji20/0.02i-B30g30/15g15wesn-O-K-X2.8i>> sinus_i.ps psbasemap-R60/200/-90/90-Ji130/0.02i-B30g30/15g15wEsn-O-X1.6i>> sinus_i.ps

Another pseudo-cylindrical projection typically used for global maps only. Set the central longitude and scale, e.g., psbasemap-R0/360/-90/90-Jk180/0.025i-B30g30/15g15:."Eckert VI": > eckert4.ps

Projection designed to make global maps "look right". Set the central longitude and width, e.g., psbasemap-R-180/180/-90/90-JN0/8i-B30g30/15g15:."Robinson": > robinson.ps

Yet another projection typically used for global maps only. You can set the central longitude, e.g., psbasemap-R90/450/-90/90-JR270/9i-B30g30/15g15:."Winkel Tripel": > winkel.ps

The Mollweide projection is also mostly used for global maps and thus the spherical form is used. To get a 10-inch-wide world map centered on the Dateline, try psbasemap-R0/360/-90/90-JW180/10i-B30g30/15g15:.Mollweide: > mollweide.ps

For some projections, a spherical earth is implicitly assumed. A warning will notify the user if-Vis set.

The-Boption is somewhat complicated to explain and comprehend. However, it is fairly simple for most applications (see examples).

gmtdefaults, gmt

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