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The origin of cosmic rays (CR) (especially of very high energies, > eV) until now has been one of the unsolved problems in modern astrophysics. It is unclear as yet whether one universal mechanism of relativistic particle formation in our Galaxy operates or not, and if there are several different mechanisms, what is their relative contribution to CR formation.
The main observational properties of the CR are: (1) a power law spectrum () covering a wide range of energies from several MeV up to eV, with a slight ``knee-like'' feature near eV; and (2) the total energy required to produce the observed galactic CR flux is of the order of erg s .
Among the most popular postulated mechanisms of CR formation are:
In this section, we focus on two mechanisms which are directly connected to stellar evolution, namely, supernova explosions and rapidly rotating magnetized NS.